by Jim Campbell and Emily Thomson
In 2015 women's employment rate was at its highest level ever in Scotland at 71.1%, higher than the UK level and one of the highest in the EU.
There has been a fall in the gender pay gap but significant pay differences still exist between women and men. At the current rate of decline, a crude calculation indicates that it will take until around 2050 for the gender pay gap to be eliminated altogether in Scotland.
Gender based occupational segregation remains a problem in the labour market in general and in the Modern Apprenticeship programme in particular.
Women's provisioning role in the economy, particularly in relation to caring responsibilities, remains unchanged.
Unpaid care and informal childcare, mostly undertaken by women, has been estimated to have an economic value of £340bn in the UK. Economic data does not adequately measure women's full contribution to the economy as it focuses on paid, rather than including unpaid, work.
For the full chapter, please see: Campbell, J. & Thomson, E. (2017) Changing Role of Women in the Scottish Economy. In Gibb, K., Maclennan, D., McNulty, K., & Comerford, M. (eds) Scottish Economy - A Living Book. London: Routledge. Available via this link.
Total Employment Rate By Sex
- All data comes from the ONS's Labour Market Survey